The THERMOLYSIS VACUUM process has been extensively studied, since the early 1980s, in Universities and Industrial companies, as part of the valuation of ORGANIC MATTER, such as: Wood, Tires, and the organic matter contained in household waste, hospital waste, industrial waste, etc.
The first application of this technique was valuing forest residues and transforming them into oil products and activated charcoal.
The method relies on the principle of thermochemical decomposition of the organic material under the effect of temperature and partial vacuum. This decomposition starts at about 180 ° C and continues up to 400 ° C
The CarbolyseTM process of wastes is carried out in hermetically sealed ovens at a moderate temperature of about 500°C under a partial vacuum of an average of 500 mbar.
CarbolyseTM can be used in a single plant, for the processing of household waste, hospital or veterinarian waste, industrial waste, sludge from water treatment plants, etc.
With such capability, the processing plants need not be specialised and therefore multiplied.
One of the key features of CarbolyseTM is that products from the thermochemical decomposition - gas and coal - are cleaned up before use. The process does not generate slag and combustion ashes represent 5% in weight of processed waste.
The decomposition results obtained by CarbolyseTM are coals and gaseous products. Of these, it is possible, under certain conditions (condensing them), to obtain a liquid phase (oil and water recovering the acid components).
Key elements of the CarbolyseTM technology are:
- The reactor maintained temperature.
- Partial depressurization.
- A continuous supply.
- an continuous extraction of hot gases and coals.
- gas scrubbing and coal preparation before energy recovery.
- energy recovery in a conventional thermal power plant.
On this picture, it is possible to see the waste reception area, the waste storage hole, the crushing equipment, the reaction chamber and utilities.
Unlike in the case of an incineration plant, a CarbolyseTM plant, being a chemical plant, becomes easily integrated into the landscape
- The CarbolyseTM process simply requires a reactor that one can just imagine as a heated chamber installed in a shed. Investment in buildings is therefore low compared to that of an incineration plant..
- The gases from the distillation of the organic matter are continuously recovered, controlled and burned to generate power (electric, steam) partially to be used by the process and utilities.
- Coal and hydrocarbons are recovered, continuously controlled and stored for deferred use or not, as need be.
- Pyrolysis gases, hydrocarbons and coal are burnt under stoichiometric conditions. The smoke volume is always kept around the minimum limits without excess air and therefore without excess nitrogen and oxygen.
- Pyrolysis gases already scrubbed during the production cycle by washing in the condenser are burnt in a high-temperature furnace, which enhances the destruction of toxic compounds - DIOXINS and FURANS. The smoke from this combustion is sent into the scrubber for dedusting and scrubbing. Smoke can be wet processed for example at the outlet of the thermal power plant, either by passing through a scrubber or by expansion into a water-space. This water, by permanent adjustment of its neutralising agent content, will provide for dustless and acid-free emission of smoke. This smoke processing method will also enable the reduction of CO2 emissions.
- This process separates:
- - waste management.
- - And energy production which can take place directly on the waste-processing site if the energy produced is designed for local consumption.If not, the energy can be produced in an existing facility, for instance a thermal power plant, a boiler plant, a cement factory, etc.
- Recovery of recyclable materials from heat treated solid residues takes place at the oven outlet. Total recovery is obtained with no loss from heating.
- As reduction of the waste volume takes place in the ovens, mechanical separation of residues can easily be carried out outside the ovens in safe working conditions for the operators.
- Materials and coal are separated according to their physical characteristics by using the conventional methods applied in the industry.
- Heavy metals in the metal form are recovered when sorting out the solids, then separated and stored for possible re-use. The waste processing temperature only allows the vaporisation of mercury which is recovered in the gas condensers.
- Heavy metals in the form of chemical compounds are vaporised and recovered in the condensation water for processing in the wastewater treatment plant. Heavy metals are in no way among the gases discharged.
- The ultimate residues to be landfilled after pyrolytic processing are coal combustion ashes and they represent approximately 5% in weight of the processed waste. These ashes will be packaged to prevent their dispersion.
The excess air monitoring helps reduce the NOx production.
The recovered water are processed to be recycled to the process.
CarbolyseTM relies on the following technologies:
- Preliminary Dehydration waste.
- Continuous processing in stationary horizontal ovens in depression.
- Extraction of gases and solids continuously without ingress of air.
- Cooling of the gas by a scrubbing column.
- Cooling coal and inert substances by a misting system.
- Conventional solid separation processes.
- Wet treatment before discharge of fumes through a chimney.
- Water treatment and recycling in the plant.
Systems related to conversion process such as the definition of furnaces, waste conveying technologies and extraction of the decomposition products are part of the CarbolyseTM process technology.
Solid separation techniques, water treatment and smoke, as well as energy recovery facilities follow the standard industrial practice.
The process-related systems are made within the framework of services of Elyse Technology SAS.
Conventional techniques are subcontracted to specialized companies in the field.